NATIONAL TENDENCY IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF SELECTED COUNTRIES OF THE EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE IN THE LATE 19TH AND THE BEGINNIG OF THE 20TH CENTURY

MICHAŁ PSZCZÓŁKOWSKI

National trends as characteristic phenomena in the architecture at the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, were of special importance for the nations deprived of the sovereignty in the East-Central Europe as a way to support the national identity. Individual ideas varied in terms of inspirations and architectural forms as they resulted from the individual experiences of the nations. On the other hand, common ideological ground was the reason for which architects involved in these activities came up with similar formal solutions. Therefore, we can distinguish two basic themes. The first, mythological (legendary) one looked for inspiration in pre-Christian, prehistoric or ancient times. The second, folk one, was based on folklore, not entirely discovered and examined. It was common to combine folklore with the up-to-date art nouveau. Sometimes, the national forms appeared as antagonistic towards those applied by the dominant nations. Taking inspirations from the areas under foreign rule, considered as the cradle of the nation was also a popular tendency. The individual motifs often coexisted and interspersed each other.

Key words: national style, vernacular architecture, National Romantic style, Finland, Estonia, Bohemia, Slovakia, Hungary, Armas Lindgren, Herman Gesellius, Eliel Saarinen, Georg Hellat, Josef Go─Ź├ír, Du┼ían Jurkovi─Ź, ├ľd├Ân Lechner