CITIES OF MUSSOLINI. ARCHITECTURE ANG TOWN PLANNING AS AN INSTRUMENT OF THE FASCIST STATE POLICY

FILIP BURNO

This article is dedicated to the problem of using architecture as a carrier of concepts by the fascist regime in Italy in 1922-1943. However, the subject of this study is not only architecture but the city as a meaningful structure. Mussolini was aware of the fact that architecture is one of the most important and most available media. He appreciated its strength as a state instrument used for education of the masses. The fascist ideology was supposed to penetrate into awareness of citizens of the state not only thanks to architecture but also art decorations of buildings, monuments, murals, stencilled inscriptions and posters. The urban space was also used during ephemerid spectacles of the authorities, annual celebrations of fascists holidays e.g. during the visit of Mussolini and some foreign politicians. Mussolini, a dedicated reader of Gustave Le Bon and George Sorel, found architecture to be an important instrument for introducing fascism. He made urban space become one of the most vital carriers of the ideology.
Fascist cities and also new urban centres built in regions including Agro Pontino, created the myth of a new state. Mussolini as the duce, Rome as the ÔÇťspiritual centre of the nationÔÇŁ, a reborn ÔÇťMediterranean empireÔÇŁ (EUR, Addis Abeba). The urban space was bringing up, facilitating the public cult of the party and its leader, and formed the behaviour requested by the authorities.

Key words: Italy, 20th century architecture, fascism, Benito Mussolini