The idea of city traffic calming in the 20th and 21st centuries -  transformations in social and environmental priorities


On the basis of a review of the literature focused on theoretical information as well as on some selected realizations, 16 concepts of traffic calming created from the 1920s to the beginning of the 21st century were identified. The purpose of this article is to present the identified concepts in chronological order, assigning them to subsequent periods of urban planning, as well as subsequent generations of this group of concepts against the backdrop of changes in the dominance of car traffic in the space of the streets. A distinction has been made between the concepts of traffic calming dedicated to downtown areas and residential areas. The characteristics of individual concepts have been discussed in terms of privileged user groups (which were dedicated to the concept), main assumptions and objectives of the concept, maximum speed of vehicles, participation of green areas, and forms and elements of development conducive to social activity on the streets. The justification for this approach is the progressive trend in the coverage of urban areas with traffic restriction zones, to improve pedestrian safety and reduce the deficit in urban greenery participation.

Key words: public space, traffic calming, street, municipal greenery, pedestrians